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This article isLandscape and Western Art (Watercress)A small summary and some private goods after reading this chapter in the frame
Framing drama conflict
One of the reasons for the appearance of the landscape is that modern people are used to living in square cities and want to see nature. The city where humans live is square, rigorous, neat and tidy. It is monotonous and cold. The landscape plants in nature have soft lines and rich colors. Compared with the cities, they have completely different forms. One of the functions of the finder frame is to introduce the natural form into the room and create a dramatic conflict.
Saint Jerome in the study, Antonello
The St. Jerome in this study, the interior of the line is very rational, strictly in accordance with the perspective, and even the floor tiles are added to emphasize the interior lines. First of all, the audience’s eyes will fall on San Jerome’s body. The pleated soft lines and ruddy red of Saint Jerome’s shirt are the first layer of drama conflict. Through the window as a finder frame, the natural beauty of the outdoor scenery and the form of the interior form a strong contrast, took over the audience’s attention, this is the second layer of drama conflict. In the end, the audience’s attention will be further noticed by the outermost Shihmen. The sense of form of the frame itself is consistent with the sense of interior of the frame, so the sense of existence is weakened, and even the bird of the peacock at the entrance must be used as a hint. It can be ascertained that what this door plays is the function of the framing box, and the two spaces in which the room is discontinuous. In addition to forming a conflict by dividing the two different styles of the framing, he also creates a perspective visual conflict by splitting the perspective space, which will be detailed later.
Framing possession means
In addition to the drama conflict used to create a sense of form, the framing box also has possession. As the following
Dahl’s “Outside the Scenery of Quinciana”:
Quesena’s window scenery, Dahl
When the frame is restricted and blanked, the dramaticness mentioned above tends to disappear. Dahl’s painting has weakened the window frame. If he does not look closely, he may not notice the existence of the window frame. The window frame here does not play a role in creating conflicts. Its role is to imply that the painting was painted during the tour and looked out from the window of the residence. So the picture is taken with it. Commemorating, painting has become a collection of scenery, has become a carried landscape, can be hung in any one room, the formation of a “window” to achieve possession of the landscape.
Although the picture is not obvious as a window frame for the framing frame, once it is hung on the wall, the drama conflict generated by the finder frame reappears in conjunction with the interior space, which further explains the record meaning of this picture: Therefore, the window that is used as a frame for viewing is blanked out to better match the interior space and create illusions.
To use the transparency of the physical and phenomenological distinctions that Collingo distinguished in the article “Transparency,” we might as well say that the role of the framing box in Dahl’s paintings is A kind of physical possession, his starting point is very straightforward: I like a certain scenery, I want to draw him with the scene at the time (through the window frame) as it is painted to achieve the purpose of occupying the scenery.
The use of framing frames for the collection of landscapes, in addition to the physical sense described above, also has phenomenal possession, such as Claude’s Mirror.
The Claude mirror is a black convex mirror, often used by 18th-century British artistes to observe the scenery:
Claude’s mirror itself plays a role of a circular frame, and he takes the scenery in the distance into the mirror. Claude’s mirror is very portable. It is usually carried in a wallet. The wallet is used to store personal belongings. When the user is holding a Claude lens, he can use a comfortable posture (such as sitting on a train, Drinking coffee) When you play with the reflections in the mirror, you have a feeling of occupancy. If a portraitist painter uses Claude’s mirror, he will inevitably turn in all directions to get the best composition. It seems to be his own creation. Although it cannot be taken away, it can give people a sense of possession, so I Call it “a phenomenological sense of possession.”
British founder WilliamGilpin in his “Remarks on forest scenery: andIn other woodland views, the book talks about using the Claude mirror to watch the English Lake District on the train:
“A succession of high-colouredpictures is continually gliding before the eye.They are like the visions of the imagination; or the bril∣liant landscapes of a dream.Forms, and colours, in brightest array, fleet before us; and if the transientglance of a good compositionhappen to unite with them, we should give any price to fix, and appropriate thescene.”
“A series of brightly-colored pictures continuously slide past the eyes. They are as if they are imaginary pictures or wonderful scenery in a dream. Forms and colors are all displayed in the brightest way and passed in front of us. If they coincide with a fleeting and beautiful composition, we should record at any cost and take possession of this scene. 。”
In fact, the organization and possession of the landscape that this picturesque art has developed is more familiar to the garden culture of our country. Li Yu, a famous petty investor in the Ming Dynasty wrote in his article “Learning to Borrow” in his “Everyone’s Lover”:
“Beside the ship, there are only two sides of the ship. When they sit in the area, the lakes on the two sides of the straits, the temples view the floater, the clouds and the bamboo trees, and the people of the pastoral priests and the drunkards. , even a person with a horse will enter the room,Make my natural picture. And it changes from time to time, not necessarily a certain form. On the occasion of the non-specialty boat trip, shake it up, change it, support it, change the scene, that is, when tying the cable, the wind swaying and moving, but also engraved and shaped. Within a day, there are 10 million piecesJiashan Jiashui, always ready to receive. ”
The so-called face is the window on both sides of the ship. The window is often fan-shaped. Why? It is nothing more than to take possession of the meaning of the fan is the literati assault hand-held private play, fan-shaped window will imply the possession of the income of the scenery in the window.
The book also mentioned that the high society in the 18th century liked to play dark-box imaging: the landscape was introduced into a dark box. This kind of game that brings the scenery into the dark box is obviously also a possession of scenery:
Rosslyn Castle, Paul Sandby
Framing of the frame
The frame is a reorganization of the landscape, a pattern matching of the self aesthetic experience. In this world, there is no scene, and the scene is born of the heart. For example, this is the aim of painting. When we look at the scenery, we actually move the line of sight so that the things in our eyes match the existing landscape template in our hearts. Once we match it, we find the “good scenery”, which is exactly what William Gilpin mentioned above. The fleeting beautiful composition is consistent. This beautiful composition comes from our aesthetic experience. Although there is no real frame in the appreciation of the landscape, we would imagine a frame to frame the immediate landscape. This is to reorganize the scenery. The more extreme view is to “reconstruct” the landscape. The appreciation process is somewhat similar to the “sliding window” algorithm commonly used in computer vision. For example, in a face recognition algorithm, a sliding window is used to traverse the entire image to detect possible faces:
Like the recognition of human faces, when we watch the scenery, we will have a sliding frame to identify the possible beauty. The so-called human-flesh camera can basically imagine what can be shot at that station. .
The use of boxes to organize the landscape is more representative of Claude Rowland. He used the trees on both sides to surround the middle of the scene. In fact, he played the role of a frame, Poussin was similar, such a frame and theatrical stage. With similar effects, a well-organized landscape is framed and the human perspective is centered on the landscape, similar to the emperor’s position in hifi.
Claude Rowland framed the landscape with trees on both sides:
Evening, Claude Lorraine
The composition used by Poussin is similar:
Scenery of a man killed by a snake, Nicolas Poussin
A comprehensive case:
There is a classic case of landscape design that perfectly illustrates the above effects of the finder frame. A 17th-century stone house in front of the Rydal Falls in the Lake District of England firmly holds the view point of the nearest waterfall. When visitors approach the waterfall, his sight will be blocked by the stone house and only the sound of the waterfall will be heard:
And when he walks to the stone house and even enters the stone house, he will see this view:
Rydal Falls Cool
The perspective structure of the waterfall that was originally integrated with the surrounding nature was abruptly interrupted by the stone house’s viewing window, resulting in a dramatic change in the distance between the big and the small. The whole stone house served as a frame, turning the waterfall into a picture. . This dramaticness is exactly the transparency of what Collingo called the phenomenon. He commented on the Corbusier’s plan for the building of the League of Nations:
“On the main shaft, there are cuts, translations, and many free-form paths that weaken the feelings of space. As a continuous space, he is constantly broken by the elements of the vegetation, the circular driveway, and the building itself. A set of parallel (abstract parallel) references. As a result, in the end, through a series of bright or dark hints, The whole theme becomes a commemorative unity of contradiction and becomes a dialogue between the real space and the ideal (imaginary) space. ”
Here, the waterfall is a real space, and the “painting” hanging on the stone house wall is an ideal space. And this painting is also permanently occupied by the stone house. The reason why it is necessary to create a stone house that seems to be dedicated to viewing is because there is actually a hint of possession.
From the same point of view, there are numerous paintings by various artists. The version of the Hudson school artist Kensett is very good:
Rydal Falls, Kensett
Li Yu also mentioned a similar landscape he designed in the section “Looking in the Scene” of “Casual Love”.
“Floating Bai Xuan, there is a hill behind it, and it is not over ten feet in height, but only in width and in search, and among them there are clear waters in Dan Cliff, bamboo in Maolin, waterfall in Songlin, waterfall in Maomao Banqiao, and everything in Mountain House is prepared. As for the statue of Xiao Yuyi, Gein Shinyoshi, his anger is like a star, and because of Yu Yung, as the name suggests, it is a form of fishing. To think and be enlightened, one must sit on the rock, and the stone cannot be waterless. There is water and mountains, and there are mountains and water, and you can’t live without it, and you can live in this cave to live there. This mountain was originally designed as a building, but it was not intended to be a window at the beginning. Yun Yun, with the meaning of “must have mustard seeds”, took a day to watch, but could not bear to speak, but stunned: ” It is also a mountain and it can be painted; it is a painting, but it can be a window However, the loss of money for one day is ear decoration. “The commandment boy cuts a number of pieces of paper, thinking that the head and tail of the painting are left and right borders. The head and tail are affixed to the top and bottom of the window, and the borders are affixed on both sides. They are painted in one, but they are imaginary. They are not imaginary. Take the mountain behind the house instead. When you sit and watch, the window is not the same as the window. The mountain behind the house is the hill on the painting. He felt laughed and lost his voice, and his wife and children went to the group and laughed again and again, and the system of “unmotivated painting” and “meeting window” began from then on. ”
In fact, the “Yuanye” coined by the contemporary generation also mentioned the issue of borrowing scenery. In the theory of creation, the plan is to say:
“The “borrower”: Although the park is not only inside and out, the vista is unrestrained and distant. The ultimate goal is, the custom is the screen, and the Ka is the one that receives it. It does not matter whether it is a city or a town. It is a smoke scene. ”
Li Yu had seen Yuan Ye, but he dared to say, “The system of ‘unmotivated paintings’ and ‘meeting window’ has been used since then, because its designed borrowing tactics emphasizes the dramatic and picturesque nature of the framing box. The effect, which can be seen from his reaction to the “feeling of laughter and disappointment,” is that he is quite content to create such a strong effect with his ease.