Speaking of the first essay in my life, it is a very memorable experience for many people who have studied it.
In fact, the “scientific research paper” is the first step in the gap between graduate students and undergraduates, which not only improves academic standards, but also enhances the ability to use knowledge, analyze and solve problems independently.
For research Xiaobai, it is equally important to write the first small paper and to explore scientific innovation. However, when writing the first research paper, often due to lack of experience, repeated revisions and even rejections, such as:
Staggered in the repetition of abstracts and conclusions;
Repeatedly modify the introduction, article logic and structural confusion;
Clearly good innovations, but the reviewers do not know what to say…
In order to solve these problems, Xiaobian disassembles a complete skeleton of the small paper into the following eight parts. Let’s discuss it with everyone and how to lay it well. The “first shot” of graduate student research career 。
(High energy in front, dry goods hit ~)
First, how to write a summary of the abstract?
First of all, we must know the structure of the abstract: research purposes, research methods, research content and research conclusions. In the first sentence of the abstract, it is suggested to describe the research purpose/study content of the paper, which explains why there are generally several types of research:
solved the problem;
Revealing … laws or mechanisms;
Analyzed the meaning of…etc.
Then, briefly explain the research methods used in the paper; finally, the specific conclusions/most important results of the paper (may not be all results), and illustrate the validity of the model/algorithm by numerical examples.
Scientific research is easy to make mistakes: Added in the abstract “personal research results Subjective evaluation ”！
Such as: the results of this study can be well applied to …; have a good … application prospects; can achieve … the economic benefits. This is not necessary.
Second, the keyword
If you feel bad, look for keywords, One of the easiest ways, use Frequency method ：
That is to say, in the abstracts, introductions and papers, there are very high-frequency and very important words, generally 4~6, not as much as possible.
Easy mistakes: “homemade” “shorthand” vocabulary! Keywords are generally not abbreviated, nor can they be selected in the introduction/abstract/thesis.
Third, the introduction
The significance of the research and the necessity of the research object should be emphasized.
The introduction explains the basic design ideas/research methods and existing deficiencies of the existing research, which leads to the design ideas/research methods and research significance of this paper. Knock on the blackboard, The difficulty lies in the existing research Effective evaluation /Overview and narrative Logic and rigor . In this regard, you can grasp the following key points:
First, the introduction is comprehensive in its overview of existing research. Important documents cannot be omitted, and sometimes a reference may make your paper accepted. This requires a large amount of reading of relevant literature at home and abroad, and a highly correlated literature. In addition, it is generally necessary to simultaneously quote/generate domestic and foreign related research, especially foreign research, which is also an invisible requirement for high-level papers.
In terms of layout, generally an overview of the existing literature, domestic At least 3, foreign At least 1-2 articles. The introduction part attaches great importance to the logic of the article. It is not easy to list the literature. The role of each document should be carefully discerned and the reference position should be reasonably determined.
It is worth noting that it is best not to quote too many documents at the same reference position, such as [1-10], and 10 references at a time. This will leave a bad impression on the reviewer, and it is doubtful whether the author is true. After reading the relevant literature, it is generally best not to have more than 5 posts.
Also suggest, research articles Wording should be modest and cautious, It can be said that the literature [XX] did not do any work / did not consider the XX factor, etc., can not say that the [XX] literature research is wrong, it will be more trouble, because your review / overview of the author of the literature, may be yours Reviewer, if you give an inappropriate comment, imagine what the outcome will be…
(1) Charts and formulas appear in the introduction (introduction is an analytical survey, not a theoretical algorithm);
(2) The space is out of control. The length should not be too short, nor too long, generally controlled at around 700-1200 words;
(3) Missing important documents (indicating that the status quo analysis is not comprehensive);
(4) The number of relevant research documents is unreasonable;
（5） Imprecise wording Directly speaking, there are mistakes or too sharp subjective narratives in previous research work.
Fourth, theory: research methods / algorithms / models
After finishing the abstract, introduction, etc., I went to the core dry goods part of our paper: Theoretical content. Generally speaking, the theoretical content involved in the research methods used in the paper should be summarized. Such as algorithm / mathematical model / scene model / skill.
If it is original content (your innovation point), such as an overview of the new algorithm, or an overview of the improved algorithm or an overview of the proposed new model, then when you play, remember to be rigorous and clear-cut;
If it is not the first time I have proposed it, I can also quote the narrative in a short overview. It is not necessary to describe the original content of the long story.
Easy mistakes: The formula number (the formula should use the editor), the letter name, etc. should be uniform, and the low-level errors that do not correspond to the previous and the text should be eliminated.
V. Example: Data/Experimental Description/Result Analysis
Here is the place to reflect your workload. We analyze one by one:
(1) The case data/experimental description should be clear and effective
Reproducible: Interested readers should be able to produce the same results as papers if they want to do it repeatedly; when the data or experimental conditions change, the results should change.
(2) Analysis of results should be comprehensive and effective, logically rigorous
Many people feel that the paper has good results, but they are ruthlessly rejected. A large part of the reason may be that the structure of the paper and the analysis of the results lack logic. The article is too confusing, and it is difficult for the reviewer to see what the paper wants to say.
E.g, In the previous narrative, I did XX simulation/analysis, but I could not find it in the results. Or some of the results not mentioned in the previous research methods appear in the results. No basis found , lack of convincing power.
Don’t disperse the “small results – small analysis, small results – small analysis”, should Coordinating the structure of the thesis , a comprehensive overview of the results analysis; Put together two less relevant results You should understand the logical relationship between the various results, and discuss and analyze them in different levels or sections.
A) The context should be strictly consistent
B) Pay attention to the logic of the thesis and draw up the writing plan
(3) The chart should meet the requirements of the article and pursue exquisite beauty
Heart of beauty in everyone.
Chart production can reflect the literacy and level of an author. Reviewers and readers like to look at exquisite and beautiful charts. Good charts can leave a high impression on reviewers and attract experts to appreciate. draft. Conversely, a poor chart can greatly reduce the level and level of the paper.
Therefore, under the premise of meeting the requirements of the paper, we should try to pursue exquisiteness and beauty.
A common practice is to adjust the simulation graphics of the software to an appropriate size and then copy it into the word; Do not format photos The simulation map is placed in the word, which is unclear and inconvenient. After the later papers are accepted, the editor will also find the pictures (EPS, or AI, or visio) that the communication author wants to edit.
A) Set the chart style and font color, font size, header, Chinese and English contrast, etc. in strict accordance with the requirements of the journal.
B) The image format should be set to “embedded” to prevent the image from being skewed after the text is modified.
C) Image size and scale values should be consistent. It is best to set the relevant images to the same size (height and width), which is good for the reader to observe the contrast and is conducive to the layout of the article.
Conclusion / conclusion
In the conclusion section, it is generally unnecessary to repeat the research purpose of the paper. Focus on the innovations and valuable results/phenomena of the paper 。
You can divide the items “1, 2, 3”, etc., or you can understand the research results/phenomenon/views obtained from the conclusions/conclusions. In addition, there is still a part of the content is essential:
Point out the specific development direction and shortcomings of the technology/research content in the future!
As this article has not yet considered … / This article simplifies …, in the future will focus on those factors … indicate that the study has improvements and the need for improvement.
The results of the conclusion/conclusion section may be duplicated as mentioned in the abstract. This is normal, and different sentence descriptions can be used. It is forbidden to directly copy without modification.
format: Different journals may have different format requirements for references, but there are similarities: punctuation marks in all references are all English punctuation; reference type identifiers are consistent, here are some Commonly used document identification ：
Journal articles [J], dissertations [D], monographs [M], conference proceedings [C], newspaper articles [N], reports [R], standards [S], patents [P], etc.
Align : This is a more detailed question. It is not recommended to manually align one bar. If the word layout tool is not used, the following two are recommended. Simple and effective method : Edit with a well-formed paper template, or align the references in Notepad and copy them into word.
Quantity: Journals above the core generally require at least 10-15 articles. Not as much as possible, it should be related to the content of the article, and it should not be quoted.
Source: Citing the literature published in authoritative journals (at least the core Chinese and English journals) in recent years, and preferably citing more than one-third of the literature in the past three years, some journals also require “self-citing”.
Easy mistakes: Be careful! Citing the literature cited in other people’s literature, but I have not seen it, it is easy to be partial and affect the quality of the paper.
Eight, the English part
Contains English abstracts and keywords, which can be written at the end. This will test everyone’s professional English and scientific terminology.
If the English level is average, then do not Baidu Google Translate!
Direct reference to the literature you are referring to, Imitate the English sentence pattern verbatim. This is a simple and effective English abstract writing method for Xiaobai.
Finally, let’s summarize the order in which the small papers are written (determine the innovation of the paper, and do a good job in the investigation) ：
(1) Complete the first draft: use some Journal paper template (Can be downloaded from the official website of the journal) to complete the first draft;
(2) Revision of the thesis: repeatedly reviewing and modifying the paper from the perspectives of sentences, grammar, text content, article structure, and logic before and after;
(3) Write English abstracts and keywords (set of templates, by frequency);
(4) Submit it to the instructor, communication/cooperative author for review, and then continue to modify the paper to the final draft;
(5) Posts: Choose the right journal submission And waiting for the review results…
When you have completed the above 5 steps, congratulations, understand and master the basic methods of writing a thesis, formally entered the graduate student’s scientific career!
Follow up will write “How to choose a journal to improve the hit rate? How to respond to the review comments? How to speed up the review of the paper?” Article.
If you are interested, you can check the micro XIN public ZHONG “Qianqian reading bar (qyqslhyn)”