For many years, psychoanalysts have proposed their own theories about the origins of personality disintegration. One of the points that most authors agree with is: Personality disintegration exists as a “defense strategy” (a “defense mechanism” expressed in more specialized psychoanalytic terms). The purpose of this article is to show you the diversity and richness of these theories, and does not necessarily agree or disagree with them. Even if these psychological theories are flawed or not widely applicable to all disintegrated patients, they will still help to better understand the development process of personality disintegration in different patients. Obviously, DPD has long been considered a mysterious disease by many people, including physicians, or just one of the symptoms of other illnesses. Many psychologists have made great efforts to explore the essence of personality disintegration.
As we briefly mentioned in the first chapter, Freud felt a strong and fleeting sense of non-reality when he was close to the Acropolis and saw the ruins. He explained his views on the disintegration of personality. At the age of 80, he wrote in a world-famous letter to Romain Rolland: “The loss of reality is an extremely unusual phenomenon, and the whole world knows almost nothing about it… I observed It appears mainly in two forms: the patient feels that part of the reality or part of the self becomes strange. The latter case is called ‘personal disintegration’;” Freud added, “reality is closely related to personality disintegration. They all have positive opposites, the well-known “faussereconnaissance”, “déjà vu” and “déjà raconte”, etc. We look for solutions in these hallucinations. It enables us to accept that certain consciousness, emotions, feelings, etc. are our own self; similarly, we are eager to reject these things in the disintegration of personality.”
According to Freud’s point of view, using “negative mystery” and non-psychological methods to try to explain “the sense of deja vu”, the basis of this concept is to regard “déjà vu” as a trace of a past life. “The disintegration of personality leads us to know the ‘double consciousness’ or more accurately the strange experience of ‘personal division.’
In his case history of the well-known “Wolf Man”, he talked about the unrealistic feeling involved in the incident. In the comments, Freud also mentioned the defensive characteristics of personality disintegration. The case of “Werewolf” is considered to be one of the most complicated and detailed reports of Freud’s psychotherapy. The protagonist of the story is a young Russian who seeks help from Freud because he feels that there is always a veil between himself and the real world, accompanied by a strong fear of wolves. Especially afraid of being eaten by wolves. Although we don’t know his specific symptoms, the words “veil” seem to be like the disintegration of personality. This case focuses on a dream that the patient had when he was a child. The white wolf in his dreams rested on the tree. When he saw them through an open window, he found that the white wolf was staring at himself. . For a psychiatrist, the young man’s childhood experience is very rich and of great value. When he was a child, he used to encounter the scenes of his parents in his imagination, and his genitals had been touched by his sister. What is more, after she knew her brother’s fear of the wolf, she frequently Use this photo of the beast to smash this poor child.
In Freud’s detailed analysis, he separated the traumatic events associated with wolves and sexual abuse from the Russian youth before the age of five with other experiences. Through in-depth and methodical exploration of the patient’s memory, Freud was able to build ” Infancy The case. However, this concept was questioned by psychologists such as Adler and Jung in that era (1918).
In the end, the Russian youth was significantly restored, partly because of the connection between Freud and his subconscious mind, and perhaps for some reason, as Freud himself noticed because of his Both wealth and family were wiped out in the revolution that broke out in 1917. This disaster has calmed down the guilt that has oppressed him over the years.
In short, Freud understands that there are many unknown mysteries about the disintegration of personality or the loss of reality. He believes that the strong sense of non-reality he encountered before the Acropolis was a response to his brain’s defense against guilt. This prestigious master of psychology feels so much better than his father who died in his nameless name. 。
Although Freud’s discourse on the disintegration of personality is quite limited, his latecomers have been trying to study this disease within his theoretical framework, especially limited by his Psychological structure theory 。 The theory divides human psychology into three parts: self, self, and superego. Self-representing a person’s consciousness coordinates the contradiction between the self and the super-self, and the self is the most primitive desire in consciousness, including all our instinctive impulses; super-ego is our conscience.
One way to understand the psychological mechanisms of personality disintegration is to focus on the study of the self and how it mediates all of a person’s consciousness. Within this framework, situations where there is a contradiction between the various parts of consciousness and lack of good and adequate coordination can lead to self-disorder (ie, partial awareness or self-representation). Some people think that the disintegration of personality has a lot to do with this pathological self. The theory explains why the disease is more widespread in adolescents because their self-identification is still in place and not fully constructed. indeed, The disintegration of personality is more common in adolescence, probably because in the period of consolidating relatively well-integrated self-awareness, the process of forming self is hard to find and is at a loss.
Although there is no widely accepted theory in the field of psychodynamics, most scholars still regard personality disintegration as a complex negative emotion, conflict or malignant experience, and when the individual’s ordinary defense mechanism fails. Protective measures made by the brain. “defense mechanism” – Another subtle word is still controversial in the current study of dissociation. Perhaps most contemporary psychoanalysts agree that Dissociation is not just a defense mechanism (ie, a way of dealing with internal conflicts largely unconsciously); rather, it is a subjective experience of self-state or state of existence.
Sometimes, a disintegrated patient may be looking for a treatment or resorting to a psychiatrist to see some of the sounding recommendations in a wide range of analytical articles. Some of these comments are speculative and obsolete, but they are an important part of the evolution of human disintegration research and thinking. For example, Paul Schilder In a well-known dissertation disguised as a dissertation, he said: “I tend to emphasize the fact that personality disintegrations are overwhelming with parents because of their extraordinary intelligence or strong body. This child has received countless compliments and himself. The recognition of charm will lead to misunderstanding that its charm will last forever. However, the parental education method and the final result of the passive and indifferent education method are almost two.
As far as Paul Hilde’s words are concerned, this argument is quite quite old, but if it is re-examined with modern thinking, the theory will also benefit us in understanding the disintegration of personality. Hilde later said that parents regard children as “showing capital” rather than a complete person, which ultimately leads to dissatisfaction in the child’s heart. One’s most primitive self-promotion stems from the attitude of his parents to him, which makes him form a morbid identity. . Even if his intelligence is still intact, it seems that he seems to be all right in the people around him, and may even have little achievement, but can’t avoid the ultimate emotional emptiness. Moreover, from a more pioneering perspective, we naturally think of it, Emotional disregard has an adverse effect on the formation and development of a person’s self-awareness—a person who has never been known by others may not know himself at all.
Hilde also commented on the part of self-examination in the disintegration of personality: “All patients with disintegrated personality are constantly self-examining with full enthusiasm; they often use the pain of the inner “the difference between heaven and man” and the consciousness of the past. Compare the situation of physical coordination and unity. Their introspection is compulsive. However, the tendency or habit of introspection will constantly destroy the desire to survive. ”
Hilde called the “mechanization” of the symptoms of personality disintegration as “the total negation of feelings”, and proposed some quite high-profile analysis. He said:
“In some clear and unambiguous cases, patients complain that they have lost their self forever, feeling like they are just physical robots or marionettes – what they do doesn’t seem to be done by themselves, but automatically What happened… The composition of the body sensation did not change… Their lack of memory representation does not mean that the brain loses the ability to form images, but constantly suppresses existing memories. 。 Such patients are fighting against cognition, thinking that they can protect themselves; in the heart, they reject all experiences and prevent themselves from feeling the possibility of anything. ”
Despite this, many disintegrators are still savvy and savvy in real life. However, they only feel as if they are dreaming and can’t feel it deeply and profoundly – it is just a part of their own falseness and a sample for others.
Before and after Hilde, other psychologists, either agree with his views, then present their own arguments based on existing self-psychology; or create entirely new theories. In 1940, 弗里茨 · 维特尔斯 (Fritz Wittels) think Personality disintegration is caused by a large number of self-illusions (ie, unfused identity) . Because super-I negates every self-consciousness, making it impossible for the self to accept that any one of them is the true self. psychologist Edith Jacobson Along the similar clues, female prisoners who disintegrated in the Second World War due to being put into prison by the Nazis were studied. After that, she became interested in the disintegration of personality. In a review published in 1959, she asserted that personality disintegration is likely to indicate that a person is trying to ease internal narcissism efforts and sees the illness as a struggle between conflicting self-identification. By denying the unpopular part of self-awareness, they defend and even attack their unacceptable identities, and the transformation between various conflicting identities ultimately leads to the disintegration of personality.
Another name C.N.萨林（C.N.Sarlin） Psychoanalysts also define personality disintegration as a defensive measure of consciousness for conflicts between various identities. He said that when the contradictory concept or consciousness between the father and the mother is internalized into the child’s self, the child may disintegrate. Struggling between mutually hostile identities at the same time is likely to cause him or her to lose their original self.
Jacob Arlow Is one of the famous self-psychology analysts. He agrees that the disintegration of personality reveals the theory of internal conflict. “In the inner contradiction, the way of self-resistance to anxiety has little effect. Therefore, in order to better adapt to the needs of defense, the self has cracked, leading to ‘experience of self’ and ‘observation The separation of the self’s self. He believes that the disintegration of personality can be attributed to a series of specific reactions of the self in the face of danger, including the split between the “participating self” and the “observed self” – the direct result is The dangerous experience is primarily related to the “participating self” and thus to the “observed self”. Alo has also written articles about the illusion of memory and the distortion of time. In the 1960s, he claimed that the disintegration of personality and the loss of reality represent a disconnect between the function of immediate experience and the ability of self-examination.
Alo’s point of view can be summarized as: The root cause of the original self-variation of a disintegrated patient is the initial Dissociation of two completely self-functions (observed self, experienced or involved self) . He said that in the disintegration of personality, the participating ego is at least strongly resisted even if it is not completely negated by the brain. However, patients are still able to maintain a small amount of real and intrinsic connection and identity.
Only a handful of psychologists talked about the similarities between dreams and the disintegration of personality. Alo is one of them. Indeed, “as if living in a dream”, similar complaints abound in personality disintegration. The two distinguishing features of DPD – the sense of non-reality, and the splitting of self-consciousness into the observed self and the participating self – are almost identical to dreaming.
All of the above psychological theories were later commented in May 1935 by Mayer-Gross as unconvincing and unintelligible. Of course, if a person can clearly trace the specific events that occurred during the initial disintegration, and the event has no far-reaching psychological connotations (such as smoking marijuana, etc.), then he naturally explores the psychological reasons rooted in the heart. The possibility of no interest. Contrary to the fact that a seemingly “obvious” cause or no cause at all is blindly believed, it may obscure the fact that That is, there is also a subtle and powerful force that can alienate or distort the psychology of all people, and the victims are simply helpless. . According to this, Before we thoroughly investigate the patient’s condition, it should not be taken for granted that his or her disintegration and other symptoms are not caused by a specific psychological process.
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