The world’s largest language–the birth and evolution of English

A few days ago, as a member of the conference team, the author participated in a conference of the medical industry. At the meeting, a leader from a military hospital faced a number of “Chinese” audiences in the audience. In order to highlight their internationalization, they wanted I’m giving a speech in a large, sloppy English, and I don’t know who to say. I believe that this kind of behavior that has spared no effort to show English has been encountered by many of us. However, the author is not going to criticize this kind of English show today. I want to tell you about the past and present of the world’s largest language.

So first of all, we have to start from the Roman Empire 2000 years ago.

I believe that most liberal arts students have heard the words “Glory belongs to Greece, greatness belongs to Rome.” Nowadays, the world’s civil law system and the Anglo-American legal system are all from the ancient Roman code. Originating in the early 9th century BC, Rome, through constant territorial expansion, finally reached its peak around the 2nd century AD, becoming a great empire that spanned Europe and Asia and the Mediterranean as the inner lake.

Any country has its common language. There are two common languages ​​in the Roman Empire, Latin in the west and Greek in the east. To this day, Latin has been used only as an academic language (similar to Chinese classical Chinese) and Christian language, and although Greek has evolved, until today, Greece and some countries and regions east of the Mediterranean are still talking. This language.

In the beginning, Latin was only used by the Romans and some rural settlements around the city of Rome, but with the expansion of the Roman Empire, the language spread to the rest of the empire with the footsteps of the army. Compared with the mighty Roman Empire army, the Roman language policy is very relaxed. Although the Imperial Center uses Latin as the official language, the leader does not force all places under the rule to discard the mother tongue and speak Latin. . However, over time, it has been going through hundreds of years. Latin became the only language of the Roman Empire’s administration, law, military, and business.

Until now, we haven’t seen a little bit of English in the shadows. Don’t worry, let us focus on the English Islands in the upper left corner of the picture above. The Romans came here around BC and beat the local red-haired and white-skinned original. Residents – the Celtics (ps. This is not the famous NBA team!) put it into their own territory. Latin naturally replaces the Celtic language and becomes a local official language to a certain extent. But as we said above, the language policy of the Roman Empire is very loose, and the Celtic language has not been forced to be replaced. The local aborigines still speak their own language. Although Latin is nominally the official language, it is limited to the local Officers, garrisons and some nobles. With the decline and withdrawal of the Roman Empire, Britain became the world of Celtic language. One more thing to mention is that there were two things that followed the footsteps of the Roman army – hot springs and buildings. Located in the small town of Bath in the north of England, it still houses a large number of exquisite spa bathrooms built in the Roman era. (ps. The Romans love the hot springs! ^_^)

The film “Harry Potter” Ron Weasley’s actor, Rupert Grint is a typical red-haired Celtic

So is English evolved from the original Celtic language? of course not! As we said before, the time the Roman Empire ruled Britain was not long. At the end of the period, in 180 AD, with the death of the great emperor of the Roman Empire, Marco Aureli, this huge empire also began to decline, and after several cases such as Ilagaba and Diocletian The faint monarch, coupled with years of civil war, uprising, and barbarian invasion, the Roman Empire is no longer the prestige of the year. In 395 AD, after the civil war and power struggle, the empire split into two, the Western Roman Empire took Rome as the capital, until the day of September 4, 476, a Germanic leader led the troops to break through the city of Rome again. The Western Roman emperor abolished his self-proclaimed king, and the Western Roman Empire declared demise. The Eastern Roman Empire, with Constantinople as its capital, continued to exist for more than 1,000 years. This is not what we are discussing today. If you are interested, you can read the history of the decline of the Roman Empire by the British historian Edward Gibbon.

Above we mentioned the Germans. Like the Celts, the Germans are ancient peoples of Europe. Around 2000 BC, the Germans broke from Scandinavia and entered today’s territory in Germany during the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire confronts the Danube River across the Rhine. Originally, the Germans were only doing house-to-home robbery on the Imperial border. They couldn’t talk about the threat to Rome. But then a nation that migrated from the distant eastern grasslands and claimed to be a Huns seized the Germanic land and forced Germanic. People had to migrate to the Roman Empire, and later the empire was really disappointing and finally destroyed by the barbarians.

The Germanic is a large nation with many ethnic groups, and its language is called Germanic. When the Germans who occupied the Western Roman Empire began to establish their own country on this land, they did not completely ban the Roman Latin. One reason is that their number is not much. Later over time. The original powerful Latin language also went down like the empire. Finally, only the clergy of the church would speak Latin. The Germanic language is combined with the original Latin to form the current Spanish, French, and Italian. These languages ​​are collectively referred to as the Romance language, and English is “Romance Languages.” You can translate literally into Roman language!

Beautiful girl with ice cream – Kira Korpi, a typical German blonde with red skin

So what about our hero today? At the time, several Germanic people, represented by Anglos and Saxons, landed on the British Isles, defeating the Celts who regained independence as a result of the retreat of the Roman army. (The Celtics are so miserable! -_-||) This time the Celtic language was not as lucky as it was, and the entire southern part of the British Isles became a kind of Germanic language spoken by the Anglos and Saxons.

However, the days of peace did not last long, in the 8th century AD. The home of the Germanic people, Nordic. A group of Germanic people, known as Vikings, quickly rose up and used their sturdy boats to do what they had done in the past, and to rob home! (The Germanic blood flowing in the blood of the house -_-|||) Of course, this time it became a dial of the Germans to grab another Germanic! Some of the Vikings were inspired by Charles III of the Frankish Kingdom, “put down the butcher’s knife and become a Christian!” Stay in a place called Normandy in northern France today and make a living! The prince was also enshrined by the Frankish king as the Duke of Normandy and a part of the Vikings to invade the British Isles, defeating the Anglo-Saxons who ruled Britain at the time. The Vikings in France merged their Germanic language with the local Romance language to form “Norman French.” The Vikings on the Isle of Man combine their Germanic language with the Anglo-Saxon Germanic language (just like Mandarin and Cantonese in Chinese, even if there is a lot of difference between the same language), one is called English. The language, the English grammar and vocabulary at this time is no different from the present. However, history is not over here.

The Viking who settled in France in 1066, led by the leader of the Duke of William, crossed the English Channel, defeated the then King of England and replaced it, and established the later famous British gorse dynasty! English has also undergone its last major evolution, combining Norman French with Norman French to form a true English. This is one of the reasons why homologous to Germanic, English is several times more than French and German.

Finally, with the strength of the United Kingdom, the establishment of the “Day of the Empire”, English was brought to every corner of the world. Finally, after many stories, it became the first language in the world today.