To understand the little thing about walking, what do you need to know?

This book is praised by Scientific American as: “No matter which field you are in, what kind of knowledge you are good at, I recommend you read this book. You will find that simple phenomena are sometimes more subtle than we think. The author is Michael C. Corballis, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.

You got this book, you can’t wait to be criticized for so many years, you want to change and can’t change a bad habit to name it, you think about it, this is good, I find the way behind the gods The scientific mechanism, I can effectively get rid of the habit of leaving God, if science can not only tell me why it is going to go away, but also tell me that there are many benefits in walking, it is better. When you open the book, this book is really not thick, but it is divided into many chapters. From the different types of memory, it talks about the time travel simulated in the human brain and the prediction of the future. Let us talk about the behavioral motives of others. Then I said that one part of the brain is called the hippocampus. When you see this, you are mostly gone. You forgot what the content of this book has to do with the gods, and the disappointing closing book says that you don’t look at a book that lets you go away.

Yes, in order to understand the gods themselves, you must have a profound experience of the gods. The English name of this book provides a main line to interpret the book. The Wandering Mind: What the Brain Does When You’re Not Looking. Human self-awareness is an illusion, an interface that allows people to build their own image and communicate easily with others. Most of us will have a focus of thinking when we wake up, but just as computers don’t run at full load all the time, we sometimes don’t pay attention to our thoughts floating there, this is when we go to God, and this The answer to this book is what we are thinking about when we are gone.

Often you have to answer simple questions, and even if you don’t completely answer this question, you need a lot of knowledge. To answer what our brains are doing when we are distracted, Vipassana introspection can provide the initial clues, when you are distracted, you will remember the past and will imagine what might happen in the future. That means that to figure out the distraction, we have to figure out the memory, there are several types of memory, which kind of memory we use when we are distracted, whether different memories have different mechanisms, and we use the kind when we are distracted. The way the memory is retrieved. When we are distracted, we are more likely to be daydreaming and imagine what has not happened in the future. Why do our imaginations about the future feel so real, how do these imaginations come into being, and whether the ability to imagine the future is unique to human beings. The readers of the gods have asked such questions, and answering these questions can help us understand the distraction, which is wonderful.

The ability of our brains to explore the future and remember the past is better remembered from a certain place in the brain. The most common use of neuroscience in the early days was to look at the poor people whose brains were partially damaged. The authors in this book describe multiple patients with amnesia, which are characterized by severe damage to the hippocampus. The hippocampus, together with the upper cortical zone and the lower emotional zone, form a spiritual network that allows people to walk spiritually in the past and the future, while the hippocampus is the central station of the network. It’s the so-called “time awareness” or why people know where they are behind the timeline. The hippocampus is not a static picture. When a mouse or human enters a completely new environment, the movement of the positional cells is adjusted accordingly. Maps can also be rendered at different scales, just like the zoom feature of a web map.

Talking about the abstract brain structure for too long, you are mostly going to go away. If you don’t want to let go of your mind, I’d better tell some stories. I can think of it because I have a super-skilled black technology “reading mind” that humans have mastered compared to other animals. Whether it is deception or reminding, we humans seem to enjoy the thinking process of trying to figure out other people’s ideas, and also create the novel protagonist for this purpose. According to an experiment designed to measure whether a child has the ability to understand others’ wrong ideas, children under the age of 4 sometimes seem to understand what others are thinking, although they cannot express it. This kind of social feeling may be what we have at a very young age, and maybe even what we have innate.

Sorry, why do you talk about the fact that we understand other people’s mental activities, not to avoid walking to tell stories? That’s right, but the story is interesting because other people’s understanding of things may be completely different from ours. Writer and literary theorist Brain Boyd believes that the story stems from the game – a long-standing activity in the evolutionary process. Games mean what to do for fun or enjoyment, not for serious purposes, and often need to behave differently from yourself. People can not only play with themselves, but also play with some small animals, such as playing frisbee with dogs. We will pretend that we have different roles in the game and we need to follow different rules.

But the game is not the whole story, because the game happens in the moment. The first element of the story is “the past”. This element will take the whole behavior away from here and now, bring it to the past or the future, take it to another place, and bring it into the life of others, perhaps real or perhaps fictional. The second element of the story is the narrative. The event gradually develops over time and is described in detail. The most important attribute of the story is sharing. French psychologist Pierre Jeanne said, “The narrative created humanity.” The story allows us to extend our spiritual life and become boundless.

But what does this have to do with distraction? When you are distracted, what do you think about, whether you need to guess other people’s thoughts, or whether you will tell yourself a story with details of the plot. So, to answer what your brain is doing when you are distracted, you need to study some seemingly unrelated questions that require you to remain open when writing or reading a book about distraction. , to ask some seemingly less relevant issues.

In order to understand the issue of distraction, we still have some horizontal comparisons. There are similarities and differences between daydreaming and dreams that fall asleep. Between moderate distraction and uncontrolled illusion, it is the mechanism in the brain that separates the two. The next two chapters of the book describe the two “cousins” of the gods, the relationship between hallucinations and drugs, the relationship between dreams and subconsciousness, which have meaning to us about understanding the gods. This book has no name, reader. If you read it with questions, you will naturally ask such questions. Your own answers will help you understand that this book is perhaps the most eye-catching ninth chapter on the relationship between distraction and creativity.

Creativity is a good thing, no one is not eager for more abundant creativity. ” Our brains are given extra resources to escape from the moment, escape from the task ahead, and go out to play. Over time, this kind of play is constantly evolving because it is adaptable and can help us cope with the complex world of the future. ” This sentence may be the subject sentence of this book, but to understand this sentence, you need to know what the extra resources mentioned here are, the answer is not only the hippocampus mentioned in the book. It’s simple to go out and play, but it requires us to have something that Daniel Dennett calls “intentional position”, which means that we think people are “deliberately” doing something, according to ours. Think of the thoughts of others, rather than attribution to their behavior based on the physical characteristics of others. This kind of play is adaptable, which is actually achieved through storytelling, whether it is for yourself or sharing your daydreams with others. Only by understanding the mechanism, you understand why walking can help us cope with the complex world of the future, not just hearing a point of view that fits your expectations.

I finally got to the key How, and I was entangled in the abstract academic problems of Where When Why. You directly tell the reader the most deflated phrase in the book, “In order to continue to survive in the complex world we create, we need to allow thoughts to roam – let it play, invent, and create.” Isn’t it?

We think that the farther the mind roams, the more unrestricted we are, the more likely we are to find something new. But we should not forget the randomness of thinking brought about by the gods, such as spiritual time travel, standing on the stand of others, dreaming, illusion. These can bring us the material of thinking, where all the unexpected and weak possibilities will be proved. But the way to increase randomness is not just a kind of distraction, brainstorming, going to a new environment, and diversified discussions can increase external randomness. If you don’t figure out the principle, you will blindly think that the more you go, the more people you have.

More importantly, psychologist and knowledge scientist Donald T. Campbell once described the nature of creativity as “blind choice and selective retention.” Just knowing that you can improve your creativity is only the first half of this sentence. The randomness of our thought roaming provides a spark for creativity, but when we hit new and important things, we need to have the ability to identify them – what Campbell calls “selective retention”. And this requires concentration, more knowledge accumulation and an understanding of the architecture of a high-rise building.

To sum up, when we are bored, we all go to God. When we are gone, we can always think of ways to get rid of the boring thoughts. But this book tells you that there is no harm to the gods. Borrow the words of the Nobel Prize-winning poet Joseph Brodsky: “Boring is a window in time series for us. In order to maintain our psychological balance, we often ignore it. It is the window that we lead to time. Once it is open, don’t try to close it. Instead, let It is very open.”

But don’t forget the research at the beginning of this book. First, the telomere in the immune cells of people who are often distracted is shorter, which is considered to be a characteristic of aging. It seems that “there are too many worries, people are easy to die” is scientifically based. The second story you want to remember is that 5,000 people from 83 countries get in touch and ask these questions through the APP from time to time during the day. What people are doing. The results show that when suddenly asked this question, 46.7% of people are thinking about things that have nothing to do with what they are doing or what they should do. In other words, they are distracting. The results also show that they are more inclined to think about something happy than unhappy things. However, even if they want something happy, they will not be as happy as they are when they concentrate on doing things. So the researchers finally concluded: “The people who are distracted are not happy.”

Whether the gods are good or bad depends on the reader’s own choice. You can say that walking is a double-edged sword, but the metaphor I prefer is that walking is your shadow and you can’t get away. When you are not focused and deviate from a given task, the area of ​​the brain’s active area is larger than when the mind is concentrated. The “default mode network” covers a large area of ​​the brain. Except for the area that senses and responds to the outside world, other areas are basically part of the “default mode network.” We refer to the so-called resting area of ​​the brain as the “default mode network.” Those who regard the use of God as a curse or a source of creativity are like those who are in the fables of Zhuangzi, who are “deep in the shadows and not in the shadows”, not as good as “the yin and the shadows.” Quietly.”